ICC Subscriptions
 
SECTION 1022 EXIT ENCLOSURES

1022.1 Enclosures required. Interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the exit enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezzanines. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours. Exit enclosures shall lead directly to the exterior of the building or shall be extended to the exterior of the building with an exit passageway conforming to the requirements of Section 1023, except as permitted in Section 1027.1. An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose other than means of egress.

Exceptions:

1. In all occupancies, other than Group H and I occupancies, a stairway is not required to be enclosed when the stairway serves an occupant load of less than 10 and the stairway complies with either Item 1.1 or 1.2. In all cases, the maximum number of connecting open stories shall not exceed two.
1.1. The stairway is open to not more than one story above its level of exit discharge; or
1.2. The stairway is open to not more than one story below its level of exit discharge.
2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of the means of egress are essentially open to the outside need not be enclosed.
3. Stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 occupancies are not required to be enclosed.
4. Stairways in open parking structures that serve only the parking structure are not required to be enclosed.
5. Stairways in Group I-3 occupancies, as provided for in Section 408.3.8, are not required to be enclosed.
6. Means of egress stairways as required by Sections 410.5.3 and 1015.6.1 are not required to be enclosed.
7. Means of egress stairways from balconies, galleries or press boxes as provided for in Section 1028.5.1 are not required to be enclosed.
1022.2 Termination. Exit enclosures shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way.

Exception: An exit enclosure shall be permitted to terminate at an exit passageway complying with Section 1023, provided the exit passageway terminates at an exit discharge or a public way.

1022.2.1 Extension. Where an exit enclosure is extended to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the exit enclosure shall be separated from the exit passageway by a fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be at least equal to that required for the exit enclosure. A fire door assembly complying with Section 715.4 shall be installed in the fire barrier to provide a means of egress from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway. Openings in the fire barrier other than the fire door assembly are prohibited. Penetrations of the fire barrier are prohibited.

Exception: Penetrations of the fire barrier in accordance with Section 1022.4 shall be permitted.
1022.3 Openings and penetrations. Exit enclosure opening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715.

Openings in exit enclosures other than unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the enclosure.

Elevators shall not open into an exit enclosure.

1022.4 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings through an exit enclosure are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent ventilation or pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department communication systems and electrical raceway serving the exit enclosure and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m2). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 713. There shall be no penetrations or communication openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit enclosures.

1022.5 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for exit enclosure ventilation as permitted by Section 1022.4 shall comply with one of the following items:

1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and shall be directly connected to the exit enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construction as required for shafts.
2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located within the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air shall be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction as required for shafts.
3. Where located within the building, such equipment and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, with construction as required for shafts.

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated construction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and operation and shall be protected by opening protectives in accordance with Section 715 for shaft enclosures.

Exit
enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems.
1022.6 Exit enclosure exterior walls. Exterior walls of an exit enclosure shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls. Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of the stairway and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts of the building at an angle of less than 180 degrees (3.14 rad), the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the topmost landing of the stairway or to the roof line, whichever is lower.

1022.7 Discharge identification. A stairway in an exit enclosure shall not continue below its level of exit discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level of exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be provided as specified in Section 1011.

1022.8 Floor identification signs. A sign shall be provided at each floor landing in exit enclosures connecting more than three stories designating the floor level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the exit enclosure and the identification of the stair or ramp. The signage shall also state the story of, and the direction to, the exit discharge and the availability of roof access from the enclosure for the fire department. The sign shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor landing in a position that is readily visible when the doors are in the open and closed positions. Floor level identification signs in tactile characters complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each floor level landing adjacent to the door leading from the enclosure into the corridor to identify the floor level.

1022.8.1 Signage requirements. Stairway identification signs shall comply with all of the following requirements:
1. The signs shall be a minimum size of 18 inches by 12 inches (457 mm by 305 mm).
2. The letters designating the identification of the stair enclosure shall be a minimum of 11/2 inches (38 mm) in height.
3. The number designating the floor level shall be a minimum of 5 inches (127 mm) in height and located in the center of the sign.
4. All other lettering and numbers shall be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) in height.
5. Characters and their background shall have a nonglare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background, with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.
6. When signs required by Section 1022.8 are installed in interior exit enclosures of buildings subject to Section 1024, the signs shall be made of the same materials as required by Section 1024.4.
1022.9 Smokeproof enclosures and pressurized stairways. In buildings required to comply with Section 403 or 405, each of the exit enclosures serving a story with a floor surface located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of a level of exit discharge serving such stories shall be a smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance with Section 909.20.

1022.9.1 Termination and extension. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way. The smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall be permitted to be extended by an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1022.2. The exit passageway shall be without openings other than the fire door assembly required by Section 1022.2 and those necessary for egress from the exit passageway. The exit passageway shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:
1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a smokeproof enclosure are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, and openings are protected as required for access from other floors.
2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pressurized stairway are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the pressurized stairway.
3. The fire barrier separating the smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway from the exit passageway is not required, provided the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway.
4. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall be permitted to egress through areas on the level of discharge or vestibules as permitted by Section 1027.
1022.9.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stairway within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony.

Exception: Access is not required by way of a vestibule or exterior balcony for stairways using the pressurization alternative complying with Section 909.20.5.