ICC Subscriptions
 
SECTION 406 MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

Section 406 has been completely reorganized from the 2009 code; therefore, the * and ** margin indicators have not been included for clarity.


406.1 General.

Motor-vehicle-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 406.1 through 406.8.

406.2 Definitions.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES.

406.3 Private garages and carports.

Private garages and carports shall comply with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.5.

406.3.1 Classification.
Buildings or parts of buildings classified as Group U occupancies because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area or one story in height except as provided in Section 406.3.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly resembles.
406.3.2 Area increase.
Group U occupancies used for the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted to be 3,000 square feet (279 m2) where the following provisions are met:
1. For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and opening protection for the Group U portion of the building shall be as required for the major occupancy of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, the allowable floor area of the building shall be as permitted for the major occupancy contained therein.
2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall not be limited where the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1524 mm) or more.

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) Group U occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same structure, provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) area is separated by fire walls complying with Section 706.
406.3.3 Garages and carports.
Carports shall be open on no fewer than two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.
406.3.4 Separation.
Separations shall comply with the following:
1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum board, not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent and 1/2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures supporting the separation from habitable rooms above the garage. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (34.9 mm) in thickness, or doors in compliance with Section 716.5.3 with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.
2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit, including its attic area, from the garage shall be constructed of sheet steel of not less than 0.019 inches (0.48 mm), in thickness, and shall have no openings into the garage.
3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.
406.3.5 Automatic garage door openers.
Automatic garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.
406.4 Public parking garages.
Parking garages other than private parking garages, shall be classified as public parking garages and shall comply with the provisions of Sections 406.4.2 through 406.4.8 and shall be classified as either an open parking garage or an enclosed parking garage. Open parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.5. Enclosed parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.6. See Section 510 for special provisions for parking garages.

406.4.1 Clear height.
The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking shall comply with Section 1106.5.
406.4.2 Guards.
Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barriers shall comply with Sections 406.4.3 and 1013.
406.4.3 Vehicle barriers.
Vehicle barriers
not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) in height shall be placed at the ends of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barriers shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.8.3.

Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.
406.4.4 Ramps.
Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 percent).
406.4.5 Floor surface.
Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Exceptions:
1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.
2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.
406.4.6 Mixed occupancy separation.
Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.1.
406.4.7 Special hazards.
Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
406.4.8 Attached to rooms.
Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.
406.5 Open parking garages.
Open parking garages
shall comply with Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.11.

406.5.1 Construction.
Open parking garages
shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barriers, see Section 406.4.3.
406.5.2 Openings.
For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier shall be not less than 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall be not less than 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be not less than 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.
406.5.2.1 Openings below grade.
Where openings below grade provide required natural ventilation, the outside horizontal clear space shall be one and one-half times the depth of the opening. The width of the horizontal clear space shall be maintained from grade down to the bottom of the lowest required opening.
406.5.3 Uses.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.4.2.3, 406.5.11, 508.1, 510.3, 510.4 and 510.7.
406.5.4 Area and height.
Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 508.1.

TABLE 406.5.4 OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER
(square feet)
HEIGHT (in tiers)
Ramp access Mechanical access
Automatic sprinkler system
No Yes
IA Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
IB Unlimited 12 tiers 12 tiers 18 tiers
IIA 50,000 10 tiers 10 tiers 15 tiers
IIB 50,000 8 tiers 8 tiers 12 tiers
IV 50,000 4 tiers 4 tiers 4 tiers

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
406.5.4.1 Single use.
Where the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.5.4, along with increases allowed by Section 406.5.5.

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.

The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.
406.5.5 Area and height increases.
The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm).

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.5.4 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. No fewer than three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for not less than 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

Open parking garages
of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.5.2. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.
406.5.6 Fire separation distance.
Exterior walls
and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and  602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.
406.5.7 Means of egress.
Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall be no fewer than two exit stairways. Each exit stairway shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.
[F] 406.5.8 Standpipe system.
An open parking garage shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.
406.5.9 Enclosure of vertical openings.
Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Section 406.5.7.
406.5.10 Ventilation.
Ventilation
, other than the percentage of openings specified in Section 406.5.2, shall not be required.
406.5.11 Prohibitions.
The following uses and alterations are not permitted:
1. Vehicle repair work.
2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles.
3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.
4. Dispensing of fuel.
406.6 Enclosed parking garages.
Enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.3.

406.6.1 Heights and areas.
Enclosed vehicle parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sections 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted.
406.6.2 Ventilation.
A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
[F] 406.6.3 Automatic sprinkler system.
An enclosed parking garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.10.
406.7 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities.
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.7.1 and 406.7.2.

406.7.1 Vehicle fueling pad.
The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.
406.7.2 Canopies.
Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:
1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;
2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a thickness of not less than 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of not less than 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929; or
3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall be not greater than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
406.7.2.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen systems.
Canopies
that are used to shelter dispensing operations where flammable compressed gases are located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance with the following:
1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements.
2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.
3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.
406.8 Repair garages.
Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.8.1 through 406.8.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.7.

406.8.1 Mixed uses.
Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.
406.8.2 Ventilation.
Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.
406.8.3 Floor surface.
Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.
406.8.4 Heating equipment.
Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
[F] 406.8.5 Gas detection system.
Repair garages used for the repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with a flammable gas detection system.
[F] 406.8.5.1 System design.
The flammable gas detection system shall be listed or approved and shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas detection shall be provided in lubrication or chassis service pits of repair garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.
 [F] 406.8.5.1.1 Gas detection system components.
Gas detection system control units shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and vapors being detected.
[F] 406.8.5.2 Operation.
Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:
1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.
2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.
3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.
[F] 406.8.5.3 Failure of the gas detection system.
Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system where the system is inter-locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.
[F] 406.8.6 Automatic sprinkler system.
A repair garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.9.1.