ICC Subscriptions
 
SECTION 1008 DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES [B]

[DSA-AC]
In addition to the requirements of  this section, means of  egress, which provide access to, or egress from, buildings or facilities where accessibility is required for applications listed in Title 24, Part 2, Section 109.1 regulated by the Division of  the State Architect-Access Compliance shall also comply with Chapter 11A or Chapter 11B, Section 1133B.2 of  the California Building Code, as applicable.

1008.1 Doors.


Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1018.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.

1008.1.1 Size of doors.


The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in a Group I-2 occupancy used for the movement of beds and litter patients shall provide a clear width not less than 44 inches (1118 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).

Exceptions:


1.   The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies.

2.   Other than those required to be accessible by Chapter 11B of  the California Building Code, door openings to resident sleeping units in Group I-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).

3.   Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.

4.   Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be limited.

5.   Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.

6.   Exterior door openings in dwelling units and sleeping units, other than the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.

7.   In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the minimum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not required to be adaptable or accessible as specified in Chapter 11A or 11B of  the California Building Code, as applicable.

8.   Door openings required to be accessible within dwelling units shall have a minimum clear width as specified in Chapter 11A or 11B of  the California Building Code, as applicable.

1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width.


There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).

Exception:
In a Group I-2 occupancy, there shall be no projections into the clear width of  means of  egress doors used for the movement of  beds and litter patients in the means of  egress.

1008.1.2 Door swing.


Egress doors shall be side-hinged swinging.

Exceptions:


1.   Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less.

2.   Group I-3 occupancies used as a place of detention.

3.   Critical or intensive care patient rooms within suites of health care facilities.

4.   Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R-3.

5.   In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.1.

6.   In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3 are permitted in a means of egress.

7.   Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.3.2.

8.   Doors serving a bathroom within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1.

9.   In Group I-2 and I-2.1 occupancies, exit doors serving an occupant load of 10 or more may be of the pivoted or balanced type.


Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H occupancy. For Group L occupancies see Section 443.6.3.

In a Group I-2 occupancy, all required exterior egress doors shall open in the direction of egress regardless of the occupant load served.


The opening force for interior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces shall be applied to the latch side.

1008.1.3 Special doors.


Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.3.1 through 1008.1.3.5.

1008.1.3.1 Revolving doors.


Revolving doors shall comply with the following:

1.   Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 mm).

2.   A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors.

3.   The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 1008.1.3.1.

4.   Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door which complies with Section 1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the revolving door.

TABLE 1008.1.3.1 REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS


INSIDE DIAMETER(feet-inches)
POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE SPEED CONTROL(rpm)
MANUAL-TYPE SPEED
CONTROL(rpm)
6-6
11
12
7-0
10
11
7-6
9
11
8-0
9
10
8-6
8
9
9-0
8
9
9-6
7
8
10-0
7
8


For SI:   1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

1008.1.3.1.1 Egress component.


A revolving door used as a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1008.1.3.1 and the following three conditions:

1.   Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.

2.   Each revolving door shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity.

3.   Each revolving door shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.

1008.1.3.1.2 Other than egress component.


A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1008.1.3.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means of egress shall not be more than 180 pounds (801 N).

Exception:
A collapsing force in excess of 180 pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) when at least one of the following conditions is satisfied:

1.   There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position.

2.   There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system where such system is provided.

3.   There is an actuation of a smoke detection system which is installed in accordance with Section 907 to provide coverage in areas within the building which are within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of the revolving doors.

4.   There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly defined, which reduces the holding force to below the 130-pound (578 N) force level.

1008.1.3.2 Power-operated doors.


Where means of egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.2, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA A156.10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19.

Exceptions:


1.   Occupancies in Group I-3.

2.   Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3.

3.   For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum 32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening is provided when the two biparting leaves meeting in the center are broken out.

1008.1.3.3 Horizontal sliding doors.


In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 5 to Section 1008.1.2 shall comply with all of the following criteria:

1.   The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.

2.   The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort.

3.   The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to the minimum required width.

4.   The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device.

5.   The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 of the California Building Code, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with Section 715.

6.   The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply.

7.   The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised.

8.   The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device.

1008.1.3.4 Access-controlled egress doors.


The entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, M, R-1 and R-2 that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and approved automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, are permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system which shall be installed in accordance with all of the following criteria:

1.   A sensor shall be provided on the egress side arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor.

2.   Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors.

3.   The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock-independent of the access control system electronics-and the doors shall remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds.

4.   Activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.

5.   Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.

6.   Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B or M shall not be secured from the egress side during periods that the building is open to the general public.

1008.1.3.5 Security grilles.


In Groups B, F, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or more means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles.

1008.1.3.6 Special provisions.


School classrooms constructed after January 1, 1990, not equipped with automatic sprinkler systems, which have metal grilles or bars on all their windows and do not have at least two exit doors within 3 feet (914 mm) of  each end of  the classroom opening to the exterior of  the building or to a common hallway used for evacuation purposes, shall have an inside release for the grilles or bars on at least one window farthest from the exit doors. The window or windows with the inside release shall be clearly marked as emergency exits.


1008.1.4 Floor elevation.


There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).

Exceptions:


1.   Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply:

1.1.   A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs, provided the door does not swing over the top step.

1.2.   Screen doors and storm doors are permitted to swing over stairs or landings.

2.   Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, Exception 1, and Section 1018.2, which are not on an accessible route.

3.   In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more than 7.75 inches (197 mm) below the top of the threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing.

4.   Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm).

5.   Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit.

1008.1.5 Landings at doors.


Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).

Exception:
Landing length in the direction of travel in Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).

1008.1.6 Thresholds.


Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope).

Exception:
The threshold height shall be limited to 7.75 inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or R-3; the door is an exterior door that is not a component of the required means of egress; the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door does not swing over the landing or step; and the doorway is not on an accessible route as required by Chapter 11A or 11B of the California Building Code and is not part of an adaptable or accessible dwelling unit.

1008.1.7 Door arrangement.


Space between two doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors.

Exceptions:


1.   The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).

2.   Storm and screen doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door.

3.   Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling units.

1008.1.8 Door operations.


Except as specifically permitted by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

1008.1.8.1 Hardware.


Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11A, Section 1126A.6, or Chapter 11B, Section 1133B.2.5, of the California Building Code shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate.

1008.1.8.2 Hardware height.


Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height.

Exception:
Access doors or gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finished floor or ground, provided the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices operated by means of a key, electronic opener or integral combination lock.

1008.1.8.3 Locks and latches.


Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exists:

1.   Places of detention or restraint.

2.   In buildings in occupancy Group A having an occupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and S, and in places of religious worship, the main exterior door or doors are permitted to be equipped with key-operated locking devices from the egress side provided:

2.1.   The locking device is readily distinguishable as locked,

2.2.   A readily visible durable sign is posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting background,

2.3.   The use of the key-operated locking device is revokable by the fire code official for due cause.

3.   Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, provided that the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted hardware.

4.   Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool.

1008.1.8.4 Bolt locks.


Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted.

Exceptions:


1.   On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping units.

2.   Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf.

1008.1.8.5 Unlatching.


The unlatching of any door or leaf shall not require more than one operation.

Exceptions:


1.   Places of detention or restraint.

2.   Where manually operated bolt locks are permitted by Section 1008.1.8.4.

3.   Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 3.

4.   Doors from individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R occupancies as permitted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 4.

1008.1.8.6 Delayed egress locks.


Approved, listed, delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E,H and L occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and an approved automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 9 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit. Delayed egress devices shall conform to all of the following:

1.   The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic smoke detection system.

2.   The doors unlock upon loss of electrical power to any one of the following:

2.1. The egress-control device itself.


2.2. The smoke detection system.


2.3. Means of egress illumination as required by Section 1006.


3.   The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from a switch located in an approved location.

4.   The initiation of an irreversible process which will release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is applied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door lock has been released by the application of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only. The time delay established for each egress-control device shall not be field adjustable. For applications listed in Section 109.1 regulated by the Division of  the State Architect-Access Compliance, see Chapter 11B, Section 1133B.2.5 of  the California Building Code.

Exception:
In facilities housing Alzheimer's or dementia clients, a delay of not more than 30 seconds is permitted.

5.   A sign shall be provided on the door located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release device reading: "KEEP PUSHING. THIS DOOR WILL OPEN IN 15 [30] SECONDS. ALARM WILL SOUND." Sign lettering shall be at least 1 inch (25 mm) in height and shall have a stroke of not less than inch (3.2 mm).

5.1. A tactile sign shall also be provided in Braille and raised characters, which complies with Section 1117B.5.1 Item 1, of  the California Building Code
.

6.   Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.

7.   Actuation of  the panic bar or other door-latching hardware shall activate an audible signal at the door.


8.   The unlatching shall not require more than one operation.


9.   Regardless of  the means of  deactivation, relocking of  the egress-control device shall be by manual means only at the door.


1008.1.8.7 Stairway doors.


Interior stairway means of egress doors shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Exceptions:


1.   Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.

2.   This section shall not apply to doors arranged in accordance with Section 403.12 of the California Building Code.

3.   In stairways serving not more than four stories, doors are permitted to be locked from the side opposite the egress side, provided they are openable from the egress side and capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center, if present, or a signal by emergency personnel from a single location inside the main entrance to the building.

1008.1.9 Panic and fire exit hardware.


Where panic and fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following:

1.   The actuating portion of the releasing device shall extend at least one-half of the door leaf width.

2.   The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).

Each door in a means of egress from a Group A or assembly area not classified as an assembly occupancy, E, I-2 or I-2.1 occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more and any Group H occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware. For Group L occupancies see Section 443.6.4 of the California Building Code.

Exception:
A main exit of a Group A occupancy in compliance with Section 1008.1.8.3, Item 2.

Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices with exit access doors must be equipped with panic hardware and doors must swing in the direction of egress.

If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend more then one-half the width of the door measured from the latch side.

1008.2 Gates.


Gates serving the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable requirements for doors.

Exception:
Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium.

1008.2.1 Stadiums.


Panic hardware is not required on gates surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant immediate supervision while the public is present, and where safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed space. See Section 1024.6 for means of egress from safe dispersal areas.

1008.3 Turnstiles.


Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress.

Exception:
Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the following provisions are met:

1.   Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress travel when primary power is lost, and upon the manual release by an employee in the area.

2.   Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.

3.   Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) high.

4.   Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights above 39 inches (991 mm).

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device.

1008.3.1 High turnstile.


Turnstiles more than 39 inches (991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving doors.

1008.3.2 Additional door.


Where serving an occupant load greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm).